Cadmium by ICP-MS (Urine or Whole Blood)
Clinical details: 
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal widely used within industry. It currently has no known biological role. Acute ingestion of cadmium salts can cause nausea and vomiting and inhalation of cadmium fumes develops a ‘metal fume fever’; a pneumonitis with cough, dyspnoea and also myalgia. Cadmium is transported to the liver by plasma proteins where it is bound to metallothionein. This complex is then transported to the kidneys, where the cadium-metallothionein complex dissociates leading to proximal renal tubular damage. Tobacco contains significant concentrations of cadmium, such that smokers may have blood cadmium concentrations that are 4–5 times greater than those of non-smokers. The preferred sample for the measurement of cadmium is whole blood. Cadmium can also be measured in urine but should only be undertaken when blood cadmium indicates significant exposure.
Reference range: 

Blood; Non-smokers: < 27 nmol/L (< 3 µg/L); Smokers < 53 nmol/L (< 6 µg/L)

Urine: < 1 nmol/L (< 1 µg/L) - Maybe higher in smokers.

Sample type and Volume required: 
4 mL EDTA whole blood - Send unused sample container from the same batch as used for sample collection to check for contamination

20 mL urine (Portion of 24 hour collection [acid-washed bottle], record total volume on sample tube or request form)

Urine preferred for monitoring occupational exposure
Turnaround time: 
Urine: 3-5 working days Whole Blood: 7-10 working days
Storage and transport: 
Stable at 4°C for at least two days. Send by overnight first class post.
Toxicology Department at King's Hospital
020 3299 5881
King's College Hospital
Bessemer Wing - 3rd Floor
Denmark Hill
London SE5 9RS
Trace Elements Laboratory at King's College Hospital
020 3299 3008
King's College Hospital
Bessemer Wing - Top Floor
Denmark Hill
London SE5 9RS
For clinical advice or interpretation of results, please contact the laboratory in the first instance.

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Last updated: 07/08/2017