Diagnosis and treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia.
Severe hypertriglyceridemia is associated with acute pancreatitis and can be a manifestation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency.It is associated with a spectrum of disorders, ranging from heterozygous LPL deficiency allied with environmental factors to rare severe cases of homozygous LPL deficiency.
The genes associated with reduced LPL activity include LPL, its cofactor apoC-2, a controlling protein apoA-5 and the LPL receptor GPI-HBP1. The effects of mutations are exacerbated by environmental factors such as diet, pregnancy and insulin resistance.
Treatment of clinical LPL deficiency is by ultra-low-fat diet along with the use of fibrates, omega-3 fatty acids, niacin, statins and insulin-sensitizing therapies, depending on the extent of residual LPL activity. Novel therapies that target lipoprotein particle assembly through the antisense oligonucleotides or by interference with triglyceride-loading microsomal transport protein inhibitors offer new potential options for treating hypertriglyceridemia.
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Published: 2012 Apr;10(4):505-14. doi: 10.1586/erc.12.21.