Sample sent to Hospital for Tropical Diseases (PHE National Parasitology Reference Lab) referral laboratory for Leishmania serology testing. Negative serology does not exclude the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (particularly in sera from HIV positive patients). Serology is not helpful in the diagnosis of cutaneous infections.
Leishmania infection can cause a wide spectrum of disease, including cutaneous, muco-cutaneous, and visceral manifestations. Travel history, exposure history, and history of intra-venous drug use is important to determine the risk of leishmaniasis. All suspected cases should be discussed with an infection specialist.